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Cultural Awareness - Islamic, Arabic, and Muslim Culture

Internet Sites - DOD/Military


Internet Sites - Non-DOD/Non-Military

The appearance of external hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Army of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and MWR sites, the U.S. Army does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this Web site.

  • Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center -- Provides links to Field Support Modules, familiarization guides, and language courses.
  • TRADOC Culture Center (TCC) -- Offers Cultural Awareness information and training materials along with language training materials.
  • Al Bawaba -- Al Bawaba is the largest independent content producer in the Middle East, and provides daily news feeds to the world's top international publishers, including Reuters, Financial Times, and Dow Jones.
  • Arab American Institute -- "The Arab American Institute was organized in 1985 to represent Arab American interests in government and politics. AAI provides leadership training and strategies in electoral politics and policy issues that concern Arab Americans."
  • Arabnet -- ArabNet is owned by ArabNet Technology (ANT), part of the Saudi Research and Marketing Group, publisher of the leading newspapers and magazines in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam -- "This Islamic guide is for non-Muslims who would like to understand Islam, Muslims (Moslems), and the Holy Quran (Koran). It is rich in information, references, bibliography, and illustrations. It has been reviewed and edited by many professors and well-educated people.  It is brief and simple to read, yet contains much scientific knowledge. It contains the whole book, A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam, and more."
  • Global Connections: The Middle East -- Global Connections is the online home to a family of sites created to help teachers, students, and the general public to learn more about events around the world through readings, lesson plans, links, timelines, and maps.
  • The Koran -- an electronic version of The Holy Qur'an, translated by M. H. Shakir and published by Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, Inc., in 1983.
  • The Islam Website: Islam, Islamic Studies, Arabic, Religion -- Resources for Studying Islam and the Diverse Perspectives of Muslims.
  • LingNet -- LingNet hosts materials developed at DLI by the Curriculum Development Division.
  • Project Maps: Muslims in American Public Square -- Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding (CMCU), Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., founded in 1993. Project MAPS provides information on Islam and Muslims' participation in the civic life of American society.
  • World FactBook -- The FactBook provides essential elements of basic intelligence on all areas of the world.

Language Training & Support


Language Training & Support - Non-Military


Resources for Finding Articles

  • Academic Search Complete -- Indexes 7,800+ scholarly journals, with full text for 4,000 titles. Covers social sciences, humanities, education, computer science and engineering, general science, medicine, ethnic studies, and more. 1965- present for selected titles.
  • JSTOR -- Top of the line scholarly backlog database, providing full text access to a number of major journals in History, the Humanities, and the Social Sciences.
  • Historical Abstracts -- Index of journal articles, dissertations and book reviews on all aspects of world history from 1450 to the present, excluding the United States and Canada.
  • America History and Life -- Index of journal articles, dissertations and book reviews on all aspects of North American history (United States and Canada). 1964 - present.
  • For more resources go to: http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/databases/db_data.asp

Search Examples

  • Try typing the following in the search box: islam and culture and middle east and western. One of the articles found by this search is: "A brush with the Middle East." Click on the title to see a summary of the article, and other information.
  • The asterisk (*) is a "wildcard" character that allows retrieval of any ending on a word. For example try typing: islam* and politic* and iran*.
  • Parentheses are useful when "this term" or "that term" is acceptable in search results: children and (islam or middle east).

The CARL Catalog

The Library catalog lists books, journals (not articles, just journal titles), government publications, and media that the library owns or to which CARL users have access. The default "general" search looks for words in the title, author, subject headings, and contents notes. The "general" search is an excellent way to begin exploring the Library catalog. When you find a good book on your topic, look for the Subjects (Library of Congress subject headings) in the full catalog record. Click on a subject heading to do a new search. Library of Congress subject headings are a useful way to search because every book is assigned one or more subject headings that relate to the major focus of the work.



Google: Basic and Advanced Searching

Google can be used to find definitions of unfamiliar words. It is very important to take note of the source of the definitions, of course. For example, in the Google search box try typing: define:fatwas to find several definitions and web sites with examples.

To do a more precise Google search, try these techniques:

  • Enclose a phrase in quotation marks: "arabic culture"
  • You may combine terms with OR (caps only!): islam OR iran OR iraq
  • Complex searches are possible: "Arabic culture" bibliography (islam OR iran OR iraq)
  • Use a plus sign to force search for a common word: "World War +II"
  • Use a minus sign to exclude a word from a search: Islam -terrorism

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Guide to Readings in American Military History

Foreword

Napoleon once noted that the trouble with books is that one must read so many bad ones to find something really good. To a degree, he is right--the body of historical literature contains a lot of "junk." My intent with this guide is to give my fellow Army officers a point of departure for the "good stuff." In particular, this guide focuses on the good stuff covering the American Military Experience.


I've divided this guide into twenty chronological sections. Most sections have between five and seven titles, thus providing a digestible introduction to readings on those periods.


American Military Experience: Not surprisingly, over two-thirds of the sections cover American military history. Collectively, they try to evenly portray a complete picture of the American army in peace and war. As with the historiography, however, I've heavily emphasized the Civil War and World War II.


For each major war, I've included an easy-to-read, relatively short general introduction, and then one or two of the standard, more scholarly, studies of the war. To these, I added a mix of biographical and operational studies. For the 20th century wars, the list has at least one book that concentrates on small unit actions. Whenever possible, I've also included an encyclopedic-type, reference work on the war.


Since much of the American military experience has involved operations other than war, I've included works on the Indian Wars, Philippine War, and other OOTWs. I've also put institutional histories that detail organization, training, and the Army's place in society on the list.


European Background: To fully understand the American military experience, one must understand the context in which it evolved and developed. Consequently, I've included books that cover European military history (these are included in the sections sub-titled: Background and Context). Moreover, turning to European military history allows us to learn from the non-American masters of warfare like Napoleon, Frederick the Great, the German General Staff, and the Israeli Defense Force. Also, it provides a chance to read and learn from some of the master of military history, like Howard, Chandler, and Horne.


Selecting the Books: As I selected books, I tried to keep my audience in mind — Army officers who don't have an infinite amount of time to read. As a result, I've chosen books for their readability and length as well as their historical worth. I couldn't, however, totally shed my mantle as a military history instructor, so I've included some books for where they can lead the reader. I've also given a sampling of the good historians.


This guide is not meant to be a reading list; there is no compelling reason to read all its books. Instead, I hope officers can use it as a starting point for their own research, as a foundation for their own professional reading program, or as a pilot through the stacks of military histories.


General: Background & Context

  • Barnett, Correlli. Britain and Her Army, 1509-1970: A Military, Political, and Social Survey. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1970. (355.00942 B261B).
    Barnett explores the British Army as an institution and a fighting force from the reign of Henry VIII to modern times. He details how the British recruited, supplied, and equipped their army as well as its regimental system and the social background of the officers and men. This book is without superior as a critical study of an army.
  • Brodie, Bernard and Fawn Brodie. From Crossbow to H-Bomb. Rev. and enl. ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973. (355.009 B864f).
    This book surveys the history of weapons and weapons technology from the ancient Greeks to the Nuclear Age. Well written, this book studies the effect the weapons had on warfare and the fortunes of the nations involved. It also examines the relationship of tactics, logistics, and technology.
  • Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present. 4th Ed. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. (355.009 D945h).
    This is the best single reference for the who, what, when, and where of history's battles and campaigns. Covering more than just the Western World, this book outlines wars in Africa, Asia, and South America. Essays on outstanding leaders, military trends, and technological developments add to its usefulness as a starting point for research.
  • English, John A. On Infantry. New York: Praeger, 1984.(356.1 E58o).
    Concentrating on the small unit level, English gives a superb look at the development of the infantry from the latter part of the 19th century to the present. He focuses on the infantry's weapons, training, organization, and tactics. Essential for an understanding of the fighting essence of the foot Soldiers.
  • Fuller, J.F.C. A Military History of the Western World. 3 vols. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1954.(909 F966m).
    Fuller, one of the West's foremost military theorists and historians, gives us a useful, informative, and readable reference on Western military history. He covers the operational history from the earliest times to the end of World War II.
  • Howard, Michael. War in European History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. (355.0094 H851w).
    In this short book, Howard provides a framework for understanding the relationship between war and society. He analyzes the evolution of warfare in Europe from the Middle Ages to the nuclear age. Howard argues that war has often determined the character of society and, in turn, society often shapes the character of war. To understand one, we must study the other as well.
  • House, Jonathan M. Toward Combined Arms Warfare: A Survey of 20th-Century Tactics, Doctrine, and Organization. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1984. (355.420904 H842t).
    This book studies the development of combined arms doctrine, tactics, and. organization in the American, British, French, German, and Soviet armies. Concentrating on the division level and below, House uses examples from World War I to the Arab-Israeli War of 1973 to show the complexities and effectiveness of combined arms. After reading this book, it's clear how important combined arms are in a modern army.
  • Keegan, John. The Face of Battle. New York: Viking Press, 1976.(355.48 K26f).
    This "classic" examines the human dimension of battle. Keegan does this superbly in his descriptions of three battles: Agincourt (1415), Waterloo (1815), and the Somme (1916). Engrossing and thought provoking, Keegan describes the confusing, frightening, and intense "face of battle." A good read for all officers.
    The Mask of Command. New York: Viking Press, 1987. (355.3304109 K26m).
    In this book, Keegan examines leadership and command in war through profiles of Alexander the Great, the Duke of Wellington, U.S. Grant, and Adolf Hitler. Each leader, Keegan argues, represents an age of warfare and the societies from where they came. In the end, this is an entertaining and interesting examination of leadership.
  • Liddell Hart, B.H. Strategy. 2d Rev. Ed. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1967. (355.48 L712s).
    Liddell Hart defends his theory of the indirect approach in this interesting survey of European military history. Beginning with the Greeks and continuing through the world wars, Hart examines those military leaders who used strategic maneuver, deep penetrations, and rear attacks to dislocate their opponents' physical and psychological balance.
  • Millett, Allan R. and Williamson Murray, eds. Military Effectiveness. 3 vols. Boston: Urwin Hyman, 1988.(355.00904 M644).
    These studies examine the military performance and effectiveness of the major powers during the first half of the 20th century. From the strategic to tactical levels, these books explore "the issues involved in why some military forces succeed, while others fail." The three volumes covers World War I, the interwar period, and World War II.
  • Paret, Peter, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.(355.082 M235).
    These essays on strategic thought from the Renaissance to the present were written by some of the best military historians of our day. The range is impressive, covering the political and economic as well as the military dimensions of strategy. A must read for those interested in the development of strategy and strategic thought.
  • Ropp, Theodore. War in the Modern World. New rev. ed. New York: Collier Books, 1962. (355.0903 R785wa).
    This book examines the evolution of warfare from the advent of gunpowder to the end of World War II. It's a readable study for the officer who is interested in the relationships between his profession and political, social, and economic developments. Ropp intended this book to be an introduction to major military classics.
  • Van Creveld, Martin. Command in War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985. (355.33041 V217c).
    Required reading for all staff officers. This book examines command, control, and communications throughout history. Readable and insightful, it deals with the problems of command, staff organization and operations, and communication methods. It argues that the armies that gave subordinate commanders initiative were the most successful.
    Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977. (355.41094 V217s).
    Given the complexities of logistics on the modern battlefield, this book is essential reading for Army officers. Well written, it's a superb history that explores logistics throughout the last two centuries. Van Creveld shows the strong link between logistics and success or failure of military operations.
    Technology and War: From 2000 B.C. to the Present. New York: The Free Press, 1989. (355.009 V223t).
    In this examination of the relationship between technology and warfare from the dawn of civilization to the present day, Van Creveld discusses the impact of new technology on strategy, logistics, organization, and communications. He gives insights into the meaning of technological change to the conduct of war.

General: American Military Experience

  • Coffman, Edward M. The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784-1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.(355.00973 C675o).
    This highly readable study gives an understanding of the officers and Soldiers who made up the Army during its first 100 years. Coffman deals with those army constants: training, standards, uniforms, discipline, and pay. In doing this, he shows us the origin of most of our ideas of what an army is and what it does during peacetime. Many details will sound remarkably modern.
  • Esposito, Vincent, ed. The West Point Atlas of American Wars. 2 vols. New York: Praeger, 1959. (Oversize 912.73 U57w).
    This atlas is easily the best collection of operational maps for America's wars. The many magnificently detailed maps depict almost every major campaign of the Army from the Revolution to the Korean War. Accompanying each map is a narrative that guides the reader through the campaign and makes flipping back and forth from map to text unnecessary. This is an indispensable reference for any Army officer.
  • Fisher Ernest F. Jr. Guardians of the Republic: A History of the Noncommissioned Officer Corps of the U.S. Army. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994. (355.338 F533g).
    This well researched book traces the status and duties of the NCO from the American Revolution through the 1980s. Casting a critical eye, Fisher describes how the NCO has been selected, trained, promoted, and assigned. He shows how the NCO Corps developed into technical specialists as well as their traditional position as frontline leaders.
  • Hagan, Kenneth J. and William R. Roberts, eds. Against All Enemies: Interpretations of American Military History from the Colonial Times to the Present. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986. (355.00973 A259).
    This collection of eighteen essays traces the evolution of the Army from colonial times to post-Vietnam. Although each chapter traces a different chronological period, the collection covers the major institutional and operational themes in American military history. The outstanding features of this book are the high quality of historians writing the essays and the superb "Further Readings" sections at the end of each chapter.
  • Heller, Charles and William Stofft, eds. America's First Battles, 1776-1965. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1986. (973 A5122).
    This book examines the way the American Army prepared for, fought, and learned from its first battles. In each chapter, a prominent American military historian gives a superb analysis of the first battle from one of America's nine wars. The final chapter draws some overall conclusions. The result is not only ten excellent battle analyses, but a book that will us prepare for our next "first battle."
  • Huston, James A. Sinews of War: Army Logistics, 1775-1953. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army, 1966. (355.41 H972s).
    As one might expect of a history of logistics, this book isn't exciting reading; however, it's the most comprehensive study of U.S. Army logistics. In a systematic and clear fashion, Huston shows the role of all aspects of logistics as the Army developed its logistical system. This book is an essential reference in linking logistics with tactical operations.
  • Mahon, John K. History of the Militia and the National Guard. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1983.(355.370973 M216h).
    In this account of the militia and its evolution into the National Guard, Mahon evaluates its worthiness in America's wars as well as its employment for domestic missions. Central to the book, these institutions were used as an anti-militaristic alternative to a standing army. Mahon concludes with an excellent analysis of the Cold War's effects on traditional American views of the militia versus regular army.
  • Millett, Allan R. and Peter Maslowski. For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America. New York: The Free Press, 1984. (355.00973 M653F).
    Quite simply this is the best survey of American military history. Comprehensive and penetrating, this book examines American military institutions, policy, and operations from the colonial period to the post-Vietnam era. It also discusses the political, social, and economic forces that have shaped the national defense. It includes superb additional readings for those who want to pursue a subject further. As a result, this book should be read by every Army officer.
  • Millis, Walter. Arms and Men: A Study in American Military History. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1956.(973 M655AM).
    This is a landmark study of the American military experience from the Revolution to the Korean War. It examines the forces that have changed how Americans organized for war and fought. Although almost forty years old, this study continues to be an excellent survey of American military history. It's especially valuable for the beginning student because it examines the relationship between American military affairs and social, economic, and political trends.
  • Nalty, Bernard C. Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military. New York: The Free Press, 1986.(355.008996073 N173s).
    Although blacks have always played a large role in the American military, they usually remain only a footnote in most histories. In a straightforward narrative, Nalty does much to correct this. Discussing how blacks have had to fight not only the enemy but discrimination and racism, Nalty discusses the blacks' contributions to the American military. He gives an upbeat conclusion.
  • Spiller, Roger J., ed. Dictionary of American Military Biography. 3 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984. (355.00922 D554).
    With over 400 biographical essays, this set is the most comprehensive source for American military biographies. Rather than just a list of dates and positions, each essay gives a straightforward evaluation of its subject as well as a selected bibliography. Cross-referenced and indexed, this set is an invaluable foundation for research and study.
  • Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1973. (355.420973 W419a).
    This is required reading for officers who want to understand the development of American strategy. Weigley traces the evolution of American strategic thought and military policy from the 1770s to the 1960s. His chapters on World War II show how historical precedents influenced U.S. strategy. This is especially true with the strategic precepts of U.S. Grant in the Civil War. These precepts influenced the way America fought both world wars.
    History of the United States Army. Enlarged Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. (355.0973 W419h).
    This survey is an outstanding point of departure for students of the U.S. Army. It is not an operational history, but a history of the Army as an institution. Weigley describes how the Army was organized, armed, trained, and manned. He also shows the American Army's dual tradition of citizen and professional soldiers. He is especially good at describing the growth of the Army as a profession.

The Age of Battles: Background & Context

  • Chandler, David G. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1976. (355.0094 C455A).
    This book is essential for understanding the armies that the great generals like the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene led. Focusing on the English and French armies, Chandler provides an accessible account of the weapons, training, organizations, and tactics of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
    The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1966. (940.27 C455c).
    This is easily the best single volume on the battles and campaigns of Napoleonic Wars. Although over 1000 pages long, it is extremely easy to read, giving clear and accurate descriptions of Napoleon's battles. More than just a narrative, Chandler provides an analysis and critique of Napoleon's art of war, what he did right and what he did wrong. He also details Napoleon's great war machine.
  • Duffy, Christopher. The Army of Frederick the Great. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1974. (355.30943 D858a).
    This book is a thorough and excellent description of the potent military machine that Frederick the Great created. After outlining its age and its general-king, Duffy describes the Prussian Army's organization, weaponry, administration, and logistics in detail. With maps, pictures, and charts, this is a superb reference of Frederick's army.
    The Military Experience in the Age of Reason. New York: Atheneum, 1988. (355.009033 D858m).
    This book looks at European warfare in the middle decades of the eighteenth century. Duffy asks the question, "What was war like for those who fought it?" He looks at army organization and training, and then what it was like to campaign and battle during the era. Throughout the book, Duffy uses first person accounts.
  • Rothenburg, Gunther E. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.(355.0094 R846a).
    The best concise survey of warfare in the time of the French Revolution and Napoleon. It describes the organization, tactics, weapons, and logistics of the French army and its major opponents, while examining the major trends and changes in the period's warfare. This and Chandler's are the only books you need to read on the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Weigley, Russell F. The Age of Battles. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. (355.0094 W419a).
    This book gives an informative survey of modern warfare from the Thirty Years War to Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. Besides giving insightful descriptions of the battles and leaders, he discusses the changing character of tactics and weapons, and the rise of the professional officer.

Colonial Wars and the American Revolution

  • Boatner, Mark. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: David McKay Co., 1974.(973.3 B).
    With nearly 2,000 entries, this handy reference covers the whole gamut of the military aspects of the American Revolution. While 15 campaigns and 200 land battles are covered with separate entries, about one-third of the entries are biographical. The clear and straightforward entries are cross-referenced, making this book an excellent starting point for researching the Revolutionary War.
  • Higginbotham, Don, ed. Reconsiderations on the Revolutionary War: Selected Essays. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978. (973.3 R311).
    These nine topical essays provide an interesting and insightful look at some neglected aspects of the American Revolution. Some of the topics covered are strategy, the militia, and logistics. Others place the war in the broader context of European history. As a result, they add depth to our understanding of the war.
    The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789. New York: Macmillan Co., 1971. (973.3 H637w).
    Higginbotham traces American military history from colonial times to the end of the revolution. Although giving useful and vivid descriptions of the war's battles, his book looks more at military policy and attitudes than operations. He shows how America's practices grew out of its colonial past, and then influenced later military policy. Moreover, he traces how society and war interacted to shape American institutions.
  • Leach, Douglas Edward. Arms for Empire: A Military History of the British Colonies in North American, 1607-1763. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973. (973.2 L434a).
    A richly detailed study of "American" warfare in the British colonies from Jamestown to the French and Indian War. Leach's narrative is colorful and portrays the human sights and sounds of the time. He clearly describes the colonial American military system that fought frequent and often brutal warfare against the French, Spanish, and Indians.
  • Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of the American Revolution. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1991. (973.3 S874s).
    Like all of the "A Short History..." series, this book is a concise, readable introduction for the general reader. Focusing on the military events, Stokesbury also includes the political, especially international, context necessary to understand the war. He argues that the British lost the war more effectively than the Americans won it. A super starting point to understand the war's major issues and events.
  • Ward, Christopher. The War of the Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan Co., 1952. (973.33 W257w).
    Purely military in its scope, this classic on the war is more a history of the land campaigns rather than a history of the entire war. Although concentrating on the battles, this set also covers personalities, background events, and weapons. The battle pieces are detailed, accurate, and well written, making this history the standard work.

Early America (1783-1861)

  • Bauer, K. Jack. The Mexican War: 1846-1848. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1974. (973.62 B344M).
    This first-rate history is the best single volume on the Mexican War. Describing the war as unavoidable, Bauer places the war in its political, diplomatic, and social context. More important, this work traces the battles in New Mexico and California as well as the vital campaigns of Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. These operations are clearly described and judiciously evaluated. An excellent book!
  • Coles, Harry L. The War of 1812. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965. (973.52 C693w).
    This study gives a lively analysis of the issues of the War of 1812 and how they relate to conflicts in more recent times. Of specific interest is the author's discussion of how this "sobering war" led to key reforms in the federal military forces and militia system.
  • Cunliffe, Marcus. Soldiers and Civilians: The Martial Spirit in America, 1775-1865. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1968. (355.0213 C972s).
    A lucid and insightful discussion of how American society viewed the military from the Revolution to the end of the Civil War. It traces the evolution of the "professional," "antiprofessional," and "antimilitary" themes in America. Cunliffe goes a long way in refuting the existence of a dominant Southern military tradition before 1861.
  • Goetzmann, William H. Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-1863. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1959. (978.02 G611a).
    In its 215 year history, the American Army has played many roles other than combat ones. This book describes one of those roles-exploring the American West. In this vividly written classic, Goetzmann describes and evaluates the Army's huge political, cultural, and topographic role in America's westward expansion.
  • Hickey, Donald R. The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict. Urbana and Chicago: Univerity of Illinois Press, 1989. (973.52 H628w).
    This well written, scholarly overview delves into the political, diplomatic, and economic aspects of the war as well as the military ones. The descriptions of the naval and ground battles are crisp and clear. Hickey argues that America's dismal military record reflects a nation too immature to effectively wage war.
  • Singletary, Otis A. The Mexican War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. (973.62 S617m).
    A concise history of the "first successful offensive war" in American history. The book examines the political intrigues behind the appointment of military commanders as well as the military operations. It also examines how both countries were unprepared for the war. It shows how the war helped bring on the Civil War.

19th Century:Background & Context

  • Craig, Gordon A. The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. (322.50943 C886P).
    Craig attempts to explain the crucial role played by the Prussian Army in both foreign and domestic politics from the Thirty Years War to the end of World War II. This is the best single volume on the evolution of the vaunted Prussian military system.
  • Howard, Michael. Clausewitz. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. (355.020924 C616h).
    This slim 73-page book is an excellent introduction to the author and theories of On War. Howard places Clausewitz in his historical period, expounds his theories and traces his legacy. Howard argues that there is no systematic study comparable to Clausewitz's masterpiece.
    The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France, 1870-1871. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1961. (943.082 H851f).
    Not only is this book the best study of the Franco-Prussian War, it is a model of operational military history. Howard discusses the operational and tactical levels of the war that established Prussia as the preeminent power in Europe. Only by studying this war can the plans for World War I be understood.
  • McElwee, William. The Art of War: Waterloo to Mons. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. (355.009034 M141ar).
    This book examines the art of warfare in the age of Moltke -- the period from the Crimean War to the onset of World War I. Although the book emphasizes European events and wars, it does include the American Civil War. McElwee discusses how strategy and tactics changed in this period of dramatic technological change.
  • Morris, Donald R. Washing of the Spears: The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965. (968.404 M875w).
    This readable and interesting book details the British fight against the Zulu of southern Africa. In captivating accounts, Morris describes the fights at Isandhlwana and Rorke's Drift as well as the final defeat of the Zulus under Cetshwayo in 1879. He does this after discussing the rise of the sophisticated military system of Shaka in the 1820s.
  • Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. New York: Random House, 1979. (968.204 P152B).
    This well written narrative describes the war between the Boers and the British from 1899 to 1902. Pakenham discusses the causes of the war, and then details its strategic and tactical levels. He isn't afraid of pointing out the many blunders of the British generals in this sometimes brutal low intensity conflict.

Civil War

  • Boatner, Mark. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: David McKay Co., 1959. (973.703 B662c).
    An invaluable guide to the Civil War. Like Boatner's other work (on the American Revolution), this reference gives the necessary dates, leaders, and events for a basic understanding of its subject. Almost half of its over 4,000 entries are biographical sketches. Twenty major campaigns, all of the major battles, and many others are also covered in straightforward entries.
  • Catton, Bruce. The Army of the Potomac (Mr Lincoln's Army, Glory Road, and Stillness at Appomattox). Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1951-1953. (973.741 C369m; 973.734 C369g; 973.736 C369s).
    These books should be read for the sheer enjoyment they provide. Catton is a superb storyteller who weaves the saga of privates and generals alike into this excellent history of one of America's most celebrated armies. On one hand, Catton discusses strategy of the North's mightiest army. On the other, he describes the trials of the common soldier. This set is essential for understanding the Civil War in the East.
  • Coddington, Edwin B. The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968. (973.7349 C669g).
    Besides being the best book on Gettysburg, this is one of the finest campaign studies in American military history. Scrupulously researched, this study thoroughly examines all aspects of the campaign. Although Coddington gives a comprehensive account of the battle, he also superbly analyzes the commanders and the decisions they made. He argues that the Union won the battle because of its effective leadership, not just Lee's mistakes.
  • Connelly, Thomas L. Army of the Heartland: The Army of Tennessee, 1861-1862 and Autumn of Glory: The Army of Tennessee, 1862-1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1967-1971. (973.7468 C752a).
    These two volumes are the definitive history of the Confederacy's "unsung" other army: the Army of Tennessee. Connelly details the army's organization, battles, and commanders. He discusses the infighting among its leaders, geographic problems, and rapid command turnover as well as its military operations. What Freeman (see below) did for the Army of Northern Virginia, Connelly's does for the western Confederate army.
  • Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command. 3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1942-1944. (973.73 F855L)/.
    One would have to go far to find a better study of command in war. As well as being the definitive history of the Army of Northern Virginia, this study is an engaging multiple biography. At the center is Robert E. Lee, but Freeman emphasizes the commanders Lee led. The first volume introduces Lee and his lieutenants. The second largely studies Jackson. The third reevaluates the ability of Longstreet and Stuart and chronicles the eventual disintegration of the Southern command system.
  • Fuller, J.F.C. The Generalship of Ulysses S. Grant. New York: Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1929. (923.173 G763fu).
    This book details Grant's campaigns to bring to light his tactics and strategy. It covers both Grant's operations as a subordinate commander in the West and as General-in-Chief in the East. These campaigns are studied in light of the strategy and tactics of the Civil War. Fuller views Grant as a great strategist and a model of integrity for future generations of American youth.
  • Grant, Ulysses S. The Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. New York: Library of America, 1990. (973.82 G763p).
    Perhaps the finest American military memoirs ever written, this book is clearly written and forthright. Grant concentrates on his Civil War experiences from his earliest reflections on the nature of battle through his achievements as a commander of a modern army. Throughout, Grant gives careful, lucid accounts of the situations he faced and the solutions he attempted. Plan to read this book with a good Civil War atlas nearby.
  • Henderson, G.F.R. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. Abridgement by E.B. Long. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1968. (973.70924 J14he).
    More than three-quarters of a century after its appearance, this biography of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson remains a classic biographical studies in military science. To gain insights into Jackson's views, Henderson interviewed members of Jackson's staff. He gives detailed analyses of all of Jackson's campaigns. His critique of the Valley Campaign, a study of mobile war, continues to be the best. More than just a biography, this is a study of leadership and war.
  • Jones, Archer. Civil War Command & Strategy: The Process of Victory and Defeat. New York: The Free Press, 1992. (973.7302 J76c).
    In this thought-provoking book, Jones looks at the strategy of the Civil War, arguing that it was, on the whole, well planned and well conducted on both sides. As he discusses the major campaigns and battles, Jones covers how the North and South fused their military and political policies, evolved their command systems, and developed ways to wage war. In the process, he gives a provocative introduction to America's bloodiest war.
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. (973.73 M172b).
    By most accounts, this is the best single volume on the Civil War. Starting with the end of the Mexican War and concluding shortly after Appomattox, McPherson discusses every facet--political, economic, social, and military--of a nation at war with itself. He uses well chosen details to weave these facets together in a gripping narrative. The result is a wonderful book, and superb introduction to America's bloodiest war
  • Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952. (973.741 W727LI).
    This lucid work examines Lincoln as the commander-in-chief. It argues that Lincoln, with a firm grasp of strategy, did more to win the war than any of his generals. Because it views the war from Lincoln's perspective, it gives an unique view of the creation of a modern command system.
  • Woodworth, Steven E. Jefferson Davis and His Generals: The Failure of Confederate Command in the West. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1990. (973.7462 W912j).
    A counterpart to Williams's volume (see above), this book uses the campaigns in the West to evaluate Davis as the Confederacy's commander-in-chief. Woodworth avoids vilifying or glorifying Davis, resulting in a portrait of man of great ability with some shortcomings. He argues that Davis lacked self-confidence. Highly readable, even humorous, this book gives an effective overview of the Civil War in the Western Theater.

Indian Wars (1790-1890)

  • Hutton, Paul Andrew, ed. Soldiers West: Biographies from the Military Frontier. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989. (978.020922 S684).
    This book provides an overview of the Army of the frontier through excellent biographic essays on thirteen Army officers. They show the diverse roles of soldiers on the frontier: explorer, administrator, scientist, policy makers, and fighters. The book covers both well known leaders like Custer, Crook, and Sheridan as well as lesser known figures like Carleton, Hazen, and MacKenzie.
  • Leckie, William H. The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967. (357.10973 L461b).
    This is a lively and interesting account of the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments in the Indian Wars. Leckie traces their history from their formation in 1866 through their twenty years of fighting on the Plains and in the Southwest. He captures these remarkable soldiers' courage in fighting the Indians as well as their struggles against racism, poor equipment, and poor assignments.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier, 1783-1846. New York: Macmillan Co., 1969. (355.00973 P971s).
    This is a first-rate account of the Army on the American frontier from the close of the American Revolution to the Mexican War. Prucha argues that the Army was the agent of the young republic and allowed western advancement. He surveys the early campaigns against the Indians in the Old Northwest, the South, and Florida. He also examines the various duties the Army had, such as enforcing treaties, exploring, roadbuilding, and commerce protection.
  • Rickey, Don, Jr. Forty Miles a Day on Beans and Hay: The Enlisted Soldier Fighting the Indian Wars. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. (355.12 R539f).
    This superb study describes what it was like to be an enlisted man in the frontier Army from 1865 to 1890. Rickey traces the soldiers' life from enlistment, initial training, company life, garrison duty, combat, and final discharge. It gives a good, interesting look at the soldier's view of the Army, offsetting the normal "general's view" of history.
  • Utley, Robert M. Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848-1865. New York: Macmillan Co., 1967. (355.351 U91f).
    Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian, 1866-1890. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1973. (973.8 U89f).
    Any study of the Indian Wars in the trans-Mississippi region must begin with Utley's superlative two volume study. Utley is a master historian with a first-rate writing style. His books not only cover the Army's campaigns against the Indians, but its organizational and doctrinal problems and its relations with Congress and the public. Frontier Regulars should be required reading for Army officers.

America becomes a Power (1865-1917)

  • Abrahamson, James L. America Arms for a New Century: The Making of a Great Military Power. New York: The Free Press, 1981. (355.00973 A161A).
    Abrahamson analyzes the dramatic reforms in the U.S. military during America's Progressive Era. He traces how the military changed from its traditional constabulary functions to a modern, industrially-based military. He argues that most officers' beliefs on using force to advance America's diplomatic interests fell between imperialism and isolationism.
  • Clendenen, Clarence C. Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars. New York: Macmillan Co., 1969. (355.00973 C).
    Clendenen surveys the intermittent warfare along the American-Mexican border from 1848 to 1916. Although including the minor skirmishes with bandits and the operations against Indian sanctuaries in Mexico, he concentrates on the Punitive Expedition. He evaluates the leaders' decisions as well as reconstructing the small unit actions.
  • Cosmas, Graham. An Army for Empire: The United States Army in the Spanish-American War, 1898-1899. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1971. (973.893 C834A).
    This study of the Army's transition from peace to war is filled with lessons for today. With detailed descriptions, Cosmas reminds us of the challenges of mobilizing, training, and deploying an army. Well organized, and thoroughly researched, this book is clear enough for those who have little knowledge of the Spanish-American War or the state of the Army at the turn of the century.
  • Gates, John M. Schoolbooks and Krags: The United States Army in the Philippines, 1898-1902. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973. (959.9031 G259s).
    Gates gives a comprehensive account of the Army's first overseas low intensity conflict-the Philippine Insurrection. He traces the events leading up to the outbreak of hostilities, transition from conventional to guerrilla warfare, and Army's efforts to pacify the newly annexed colony through a combination of military force and, more important, progressive reforms. An excellent study of an early American low intensity conflict.
  • Jamieson, Perry D. Crossing the Deadly Ground: United States Army Tactics,1865-1899. Tuscaloosa & London: The University of Alabama Press, 1994. (355.422 J32c).
    This first-rate study examines the evolution of tactics, organization, and doctrine as the Army faced the technological changes of the late 19th century. The fundamental problem was the dominance of the tactical defense and the vulnerability of offensive forces as they cross the "deadly ground" in front of defensive positions. Jamieson also covers the internal and external difficulties that the Army faced as it attempted to change.
  • Linn, Brian McAllister. The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899-1902. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. (959.9031 L758u).
    Rather than viewing this insurrection from an archipelago-wide perspective, Linn looks at the regional conflicts on the island of Luzon. This superb history not only explores the "nuts and bolts" of leadership, policies, and tactics in a counterinsurgency, but draws useful lessons for the modern officer. As a result, this book is a must read for any serious student of counterinsurgency operations.
  • Nenninger, Timothy K. The Leavenworth Schools and the Old Army: Education, Professionalism, and the Officer Corps of the United States Army, 1881-1918. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.(355.00711 N437L).
    This book examines the evolution of the Army schools at Fort Leavenworth from their origin to the First World War. Nenninger places this evolution in the general context of military reform at the turn of the century and assesses its influence in preparing the Army for the complexities of modern warfare, especially World War I.
  • Smythe, Donald. Guerrilla Warrior: The Early Life of John J. Pershing. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. (355.331092 P466s).
    Although most of us know Pershing as the American commander in World War I, his early career as a soldier in several low intensity conflicts may hold more importance for the modern officer. Smythe captures Pershing's experiences fighting the Indians in the American West, Moros in the Philippines, and Pancho Villa in Mexico in this well written biography. Together with the second volume (see WWI section), this is one of the best military biographies around.
  • Trask, David F. The War with Spain in 1898. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1981. (973.89 T775w).
    More than a superbly detailed military history, this book examines the war's complex diplomatic background, its jingoistic beginnings, and President McKinley's effective coordination of national strategy. Trask also argues that in the final negotiations the losers were anxious to give away much more than the winners wanted to take. This will be the standard on the war with Spain for years to come.

World War I: Background & Context

  • Barnett, Correlli. The Swordbearers: Supreme Command in the First World War. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1963. (940.414 B261s).
    In this book, Barnett examines four high level commanders in World War I--Generals von Moltke, Petain, and Ludendorff, and Admiral Jellicoe. In his assessment of their character and their influence on the war, Barnett gives a masterly interpretation of the war's major issues. An interesting look at the impact of personality on high command.
  • Horne, Alistair. The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1962. (940.427 H815p).
    More than just a chronicle of a battle, Horne gives a moving and sympathetic study of the soldiers who fought at Verdun. After laying out the setting and sorting through the rival plans, he captures all the horrors and heroics of the ten month bloody battle, where 700,000 soldiers fell. A brilliantly written battle piece.
  • Liddell Hart, B.H. The Real War, 1914-1918. Boston: Little, Brown, 1930. (940.4 L712r).
    This timeless classic remains one of the best histories of World War I. Well written, it outlines the origins, opposing forces, plans, and all the campaigns of the war. Liddell Hart, a veteran of the trenches himself, writes critically, although not vindictively, of the generals and campaigns. An intelligent look at the war by one of history's best military historians.
  • Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of World War I. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1981. (940.3 S874s).
    This book provides a superb overview of the major campaigns and theaters of World War I. Concise and very readable, it still goes into enough detail to provide an understanding of the major issues and events of the war. This is the book for someone who wants to begin a study of World War I.
  • Tuchman, Barbara W. The Guns of August. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1962. (940.421 T888G).
    This book covers the opening clashes of August 1914. Tuchman weaves the personalities, plans, and first battles into a readable and splendid narrative. She argues that the powers made their plans inflexible, not allowing for contingencies, and failed to recognize their own errors.

World War I

  • Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. (940.41273 C675w).
    By far the best work on the American military in World War I. It's an excellent synthesis of well known information and a comprehensive analysis of America's military experience from the manpower mobilization and training to strategy and operations. The work's main attraction is Coffman's use of personal interviews, and unpublished diaries and memoirs to focus on the individual soldier as well as the leaders.
  • DeWeerd, Harvey. President Wilson Fights His War: World War I and the American Intervention. New York: Macmillan Co., 1968. (940.373 W754d).
    An unsophisticated, but straightforward military history of World War I. Although DeWeerd concentrates on the American war effort, he does a good job of placing it into the larger context of the European war of 1914-1918. His battle pieces are clear and instructive and his many maps are helpful.
  • Smythe, Donald. Pershing: General of the Armies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. (923.573 P466s).
    This is the second part of Father Smythe's definitive biography of Pershing. A model of military biography, this book is painstakingly researched, well written, and judicious. Concentrating on Pershing as the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, Smythe provides insights to the training of an army, coalition warfare, and campaign planning. Indispensable to the student of World War I, this book is a major contribution to the study of the AEF.
  • U.S. Army Infantry School. Infantry in Battle. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1939. (356 U571i).
    Prepared under the direction of Col. George C. Marshall, this book is concerned with preparing junior leaders for war by helping to teach them tactics. Giving detailed examples from World War I, it acquaints the reader with the realities of war by emphasizing important lessons. Even today, this is a first-rate primer on tactics.

Inter-War

  • Gabel, Christopher R. The U.S. Army GHQ Maneuvers of 1941. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1991. (355.52 G112u).
    Few histories examine Army training; however, this book describes the planning and events of the largest maneuvers ever conducted by the Army. These maneuvers played a huge role in the development of the World War II army, serving as a test for emerging doctrine, organization, and equipment. Gabel not only describes the maneuvers themselves, but fits them into the context of the America's first peacetime mobilization.
  • Griffith, Robert K., Jr. Men Wanted for the U.S. Army: America's Experience with an All-Volunteer Army Between the World Wars. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982. (355.22362 G854m).
    Although this work concentrates on manpower policy, it's the only book length study of the inter-war Army. Divided into four sections, each looking at a different period (disarmament, the 1920s, the Depression, and rearmament), this book covers the events, attitudes, and legislation that affected the military as well as the experiences with a volunteer army.
  • Langley, Lester D. The Banana Wars: An Inner History of American Empire, 1900-1934. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1983. (972.9051 L283b).
    This book gives a well researched, scholarly overview of American military efforts to police the Caribbean-Central American region once the United States had decided to pursue a policy of active intervention to protect its interest. The main interventions in Cuba, Mexico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua are treated in detail.
  • Macaulay, Neill. The Sandino Affair. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1967. (972.8505 M1175).
    This book is the most detailed study of American efforts between 1927 and 1933 to end civil strife and supervise democratic elections in Nicaragua. While trying to do this, U.S. Marines fought a guerrilla war against the forces of Augusto Sandino. Macaulay describes the Marines' tactics and operations against the guerrilla forces. These insights are relevant to officers today.

World War II: Background & Context

  • Barnett, Correlli. The Desert Generals. New & Enl. Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1960, 1982. (940.5423 B261d).
    In this collective biography, Barnett examines the five leaders of the British forces in North Africa from 1940-1943. In the process, he gives an engrossing and well written account of the dramatic campaigns in the Western Desert. He does much to rescue the admirable O'Connor from obscurity and rehabilitate the solid Auchinleck. For American audience, he holds special appeal since he sharply criticizes Montgomery.
    Hitler's Generals. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1989. (940.5343 H675).
    Barnett has assembled a superb set of experts to examine the German generals of World War II. Each portrait assesses a different general's military abilities, give his professional and social background, and portray how he reacted to Hitler's personality and style of leadership.
  • Doughty, Robert A. Breaking Point: Sedan and the Fall of France 1940. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1990. (940.5421431 D732b).
    This book examines the stunning German victory in May 1940 from both sides of the battle. After describing the development of the rivals' doctrine and strategy, Doughty looks at the battle from the whole spectrum of tactical and operational levels. Dispelling myths, he argues that German victory didn't rest on superior weaponry or a new kind of warfare, but on well led, well trained soldiers using sound doctrine.
  • Keegan, John, ed. Churchill's Generals. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. (940.540941 C563).
    This collection of essays outlines the careers and campaigns of over 20 generals who served under Churchill. These essays cover some of the important, but lesser-known generals like Slim and Wavell, as well as the great trio of Montgomery, Brooke, and Alexander. Well written, this book offers an easy introduction to the British efforts in World War II.
  • Mellenthin, F.W. von. Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956. (940.542 M525p).
    Although written with a strong German bias, this well known book remains useful reading. Based on his experiences as a staff officer in North Africa, Russia, and the Western Front, Mellenthin details the planning, tactics, and operations of German panzer forces. He is especially good at describing the exploits of the masters of armored warfare--Rommel, Balck, and Manstein.
  • Slim, William, 1st Viscount. Defeat into Victory. London: Papermac, 1986. (940.5425 S633d).
    In this readable book, Slim has written a personal account of the British campaigns against the Japanese from 1942-1945. He describes the herculean efforts to overcome defeat, disease, and logistic problems to forge an effective army that pushed the Japanese out of Burma. Open and honest, he admits his mistakes as well as telling of his successes. The result is an excellent study of military leadership and a book that is of value to any Army officer.
  • Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of World War II. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1980. (940.53 S874s).
    This book is a clear, concise, easily read overview of the Second World War. It manages to address virtually all of the major campaigns and strategic decisions of the war, whether in Europe, North Africa, the Far East, or the war on the seas. Like Stokesbury's other works, it's an excellent book for the novice beginning his study.
  • Willmott, H.P. The Great Crusade: A New Complete History of the Second World War. New York: The Free Press, 1989. (940.53 W738g).
    This well balanced history gives an overview of World War II from the earliest Japanese and Italian battles in the 1930s to the dropping of the atomic bombs. Covering both the European and Far East theaters, Willmott gives a chronological account of the military events in their political and economic context, while avoiding the "great men" approach to history. He argues that neither Germany nor Japan understood the nature of war.
  • Ziemke, Earl F. and Magna E. Bauer. Moscow to Stalingrad: Decision in the East . Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1985.(940.5421 Z66m)
  • Ziemke, Earl F. Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1966.(940.5421 Z66s).
    These two operational histories describe the last two-thirds of the Soviet-German campaigns of World War II. Covering the strategic situation, the books emphasize the tactical plans, leaders, and operations. Extremely well supported by maps, these may be the most accessible accounts of the fighting on the Eastern Front.

World War II: General American

  • Greenfield, Kent Roberts, ed. Command Decisions. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1960. (940.542 U56c).
    This collection of essays is an excellent compendium on decision making in World War II. From why the Allies choose to defeat Germany first to the decision to use the atomic bomb, this book gives an unique opportunity for the reader to view strategic decision making at its best and at its worst. Each study is complete in itself.
  • Marshall, S.L.A. Men Against Fire: The Problems of Battle Command in Future War. Washington, D.C.: The Infantry Journal Press, 1947. (355.331 M369m).
    Marshall addresses the infantry commander's problem of motivating his soldiers in combat in this short, but thought provoking work. His claim that his research included interviews with thousand of soldiers is now in question. Still, the book remains an invaluable assessment of the nature of the battlefield, what motivates soldiers to fight, and the impact that training can have on a soldier's preparation for combat.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. The Mighty Endeavor: American Armed Forces in the European Theater in World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. (940.5421 M135m).
    A first-rate volume on America's participation in the World War II in Europe. This book examines the pre-war strategic planning, wartime mobilization, and tells the story of the battles the American soldiers fought from the landings in North Africa through the crossing of the Elbe in Germany. A major theme is the strategic debates between the American and British planners over how best to conduct the war.
  • Perret, Geoffrey. There's a War to Won: The United States Army in World War II. New York: Random House, 1991. (940.541273 P455t).
    This lively book is essentially a biography of the greatest army in American history -- the one of 1941-1945. Perret shows how it was drafted, trained, organized, and armed. Outlining the Army's major campaigns and profiling its major leaders, he also describes the human element of the Army. Concentrating on the Army's positive achievements, Perret argues that the Army was at least a decade ahead of any other army.
  • Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan. New York: The Free Press, 1985. (940.5426 S741e).
    Spector recreates the little-known campaigns and events of this brutal 44 month struggle. Reassessing American strategy, he sees the dual advance of Nimitz and MacArthur more a product of bureaucratic and public relations problems than a product of strategic thought. He also covers the conflict between the Army and the Navy and between the British and American allies. A superb overview, this is the best single volume on the Pacific War.

World War II: Battles and Campaigns

  • D'Este, Carlo. Decision in Normandy. New York: Dutton Publishing Company, 1983. (940.5421 D476D).
    D'Este gives a superb analysis of the Allied invasion of Normandy. He faces the controversies that surround the invasion head on, and convincingly reaches balanced conclusions. He does a first-rate job of linking the events, problems, and successes of the operation to the decisions made during the planning. This book provides a thorough understanding of management of the operational level of war within the Anglo-American alliance during World War II.
    World War II in the Mediterranean, 1942-1945. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1990. (940.5423 D476w).
    This survey reevaluates the strategy and tactics of the Anglo-American effort in the Mediterranean. This book examines the successes and failures of both Allied and Axis commanders in the Tunisian, Sicilian, and Italian operations. Although a study of command, D'Este gives an excellent balance between the high-level direction of the war and the fighting of the battles. This book gives much needed attention to a vital theater that's too often overlooked.
  • Drea, Edward J. MacArthur's ULTRA: Codebreaking and the War against Japan, 1942-1945. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992. (940.5426 D771m).
    In this well crafted book, Drea examines the significance of ULTRA in the Southwest Pacific theater. After looking how at the SIGINT apparatus was established and organized, he argues that MacArthur's use of ULTRA was situational: if it fit into the general's strategy, it was used. The research alone makes this book worthwhile. Not only did Drea tap into the recently unclassified American records, but he used Japanese sources as well.
  • Falk, Stanley S. Decision at Leyte. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1966. (940.5426 F191D).
    Good histories of the Army's campaigns in the Pacific Theater are few and far between. In one of those few, Falk recounts the American return to the Philippines in late 1944. He draws combat on the ground, air, and sea into a single struggle for the island of Leyte. Falk presents the battle from the eyes of some of the individuals as well as the strategic point of view.
  • Historical Division, War Department. Small Unit Actions Washington, D.C.: Center for Military History, U.S. Army, 1946. (940.542 U586sm).
    This work details small unit operations in World War II to show "the real nature of modern battle." It describes the actions of the 2d Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc (Normandy), the 27th Division at Tanapag Plain (Saipan), the 351st Infantry at Santa Maria Infante (Italy) and the 4th Armored Division at Singling (France). The maps, pictures, and details make these four case studies of small units in combat ideal for company and field-grade officers.
  • Koch, Oscar W. with Robert G. Hays. G-2: Intelligence for Patton. Philadelphia: Whitmore Publishing Co., 1971. (940.548673 K76G).
    Koch was Patton's G2 for virtually the entire war and his book gives a readable tutorial on how to be an intelligence officer. Through anecdotes and examples, Koch gives an insider's view to Patton's operations. He outlines security and deception efforts as well as his intelligence estimates. Written prior to declassification of ULTRA, Koch is unable to include how SIGINT affected Patton's decisions. Still, this book should not be missed by an Army intelligence officer.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. A Time for Trumpets: The Untold Story of the Battle of the Bulge. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1984. (940.5421 M135t).
    A veteran of the Battle of the Bulge, MacDonald combines gripping small unit battle pieces with accounts of the operational and strategic plans and movements. In his detailed narrative, he critiques the decisions and actions of both sides. He is especially damning of the Allied intelligence breakdown. He offers some important insights on command and control, combined arms, and difficulties of movement in restricted terrain and bad weather
  • MacDonald, Charles B. and Sidney T. Mathews. Three Battles: Arnaville, Altuzzo, and Schmidt. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1952.(940.54 U56s M135t).
    This volume presents close-up views of three combat action from the European theater. The battles selected for this detailed treatment include a river crossing, a breakthrough of a defensive position, and an attempt to seize key terrain. Based on combat interviews, after-action reports, and operations orders, these accounts give an excellent portrait of how battalions and companies fought in World War II, while identifying factors that influenced the outcome of the actions.
  • Weigley, Russell F. Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaigns of France and Germany, 1944-1945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.(940.5421 W419es).
    This is the best single volume on the U.S. Army's operations in Northwest Europe from the landings in Normandy to Germany's surrender. More than a simple narrative of the campaigns, Weigley analyzes the combat effectiveness of the Army's organization and higher leadership. He argues that the Army was an army of mobility not designed to generate the sustained combat power called for by its strategy of annihilation.

World War II: Biographies

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1970.(940.542 A496s).
    Ambrose, the leading authority on Eisenhower, gives a favorable evaluation of the Allied commander in the Mediterranean and, later, European theaters. In the book, Ike's decisions during the Normandy invasion and the Battle of the Bulge particularly stand out. Ambrose also discusses Eisenhower's frustrations and triumphs as a commander who has to deal with troublesome subordinates like Patton and Monty.
  • Blumenson, Martin. Patton: The Man Behind the Legend, 1885-1945. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1985.(355.3310924 P322B).
    This may not be the definitive biography of Patton, but it's certainly the most accessible. In his quick reading book, Patton expert Blumenson doesn't deal with the details of Patton's battles. Instead, he gives a sympathetic, yet realistic, look at the man behind the legend. One of Blumenson's themes is how Patton prepared himself both mentally and physically for war.
  • Bradley, Omar N. with Clay Blair. A General's Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983. (940.54092 B811g).
    This autobiography includes Bradley's recollections of his early army career, his service as division, corps, army, and army group commander during World War II, and his service as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the Korean War. His analysis of the campaigns is informative and well written. In contrast to his earlier A Soldier's Story, Bradley is candid in his assessments of Eisenhower, Patton, Montgomery, and others.
  • Collins, Joseph Lawton. Lightning Joe: An Autobiography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.(355.3310924 C712L).
    Perhaps the best World War II memoirs by one of the best American corps commanders. Collins served as a division commander in the Pacific and the VII Corps commander in Europe. Later he served as Army Chief of Staff during the Korean War, and as special envoy to Vietnam. This memoir is well written and straightforward. It's especially good for giving a commander's perspective at the operational level.
  • James, D. Clayton. The Years of MacArthur. 3 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970-1985.(923.573 M116j).
    By far the best biography on MacArthur, this well written and researched study captures all the brilliance as well as the faults of the general. The first volume covers MacArthur's life up to World War II; the second covers his campaigns in the Pacific; and the final one covers his operations in Korea and his relief. Much information on leadership and command in war emerge from this fair minded biography.
  • Leary, William M. ed. We Shall Return: MacArthur's Commanders and the Defeat of Japan. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988. (940.54260924 W361).
    Few biographies exist of the operational and tactical commanders who fought under MacArthur in the Pacific Theater. This book nicely corrects this shortcoming. Overall critical, rather than adoring, of MacArthur, the authors offer eight well written biographic essays of his principal commanders, who fought the battles, gained air superiority, and landed the troops. An excellent introduction to the campaigns in the Southwest Pacific area.
  • Morelock, J.D. Generals of the Ardennes: American Leadership in the Battle of the Bulge. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1994. (ask at circulation desk).
    Using five case studies, this book looks at American leadership during the German counteroffensive in the Ardennes. The studies cover the commandership of Eisenhower and subordinates at five different echelons. Based on thorough research, COL Morelock critically evaluates each general on what characteristics of leadership they displayed and how it affected the overall battle. The result is a balanced and insightful examination of leadership at the higher levels.
  • Pogue, Forrest C. George C. Marshall. 4 vols. New York: Viking Press, 1963-1987. (923.573 M368po).
    According to Pogue, Marshall made the single most important contribution to winning World War II. He did so by recognizing, developing, and giving command to officers like Eisenhower and Bradley, and by expertly managing the complex politico-military establishment that emerged with the advent of global war. Pogue knew and interviewed Marshall for this comprehensive, complete, and coherent biography.

The Korean War

  • Fehrenbach, T.R. This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness. New York: Macmillan Company, 1963. (951.042 F296t).
    This popular account of the Korean War was written as a platoon leader's book. Using operations journals and interviews with small unit leaders as primary sources, Fehrenbach tells the story from the standpoint of troops on the ground. Not purporting to write a definitive history, he traces the ground actions from June 1950 to July 1953. The book abounds in lucid accounts of small unit actions and heroism.
  • Gugeler, Russell A. Combat Actions in Korea. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army, 1970. (951.9042 G942c).
    Intended for the Army junior leader, this study details squad, platoon, and company-level actions. The descriptions of infantry, artillery, and tank combat are detailed, often with an individual's viewpoint, and are accompanied by excellent maps. While offering no overall evaluation of the conflict, the book will give an understanding of the confusion of battle, and the need for realistic training.
  • Matray, James I., ed. Historical Dictionary of the Korean War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991. (951.9042 H673).
    This collection of 525 essays, maps, and bibliographies provides an helpful study tool and guide to the Korean War. The essays give concise and straightforward discussions of the leaders, events, policies, and military operations, and events of the war, while the bibliography offers a starting point for further study. The dictionary emphasizes the American and South Korean side, but it does have several Chinese contributors, making for a more balanced work.
  • Rees, David. Korea: The Limited War. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1964. (951.9042 R328kw).
    Perhaps the best single volume on the Korean War. This work focuses on a wide range of topics about the American conduct of the Korean War. These include America's relations with her allies, its changing national strategy, and the conduct of air and land operations on the Korean peninsula. Rees' analysis of the changing military and political objectives and his account of MacArthur's relief are especially good.
  • Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of the Korean War. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1988. (951.9042 S8874s).
    Like Stokesbury's other works, this book is a clear and readable overview of its subject. After giving some background, it traces the war from the North Korean invasion through the brilliant Inchon landings, Chinese intervention, and the last years of bloody stalemate. For the beginner, this is an excellent starting point for a study of this "forgotten war."

The Vietnam War

  • Cash, John A., John N. Albright, and Allan W. Sandstrum. Seven Firefights in Vietnam. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1970. (959.70434 A342s).
    This work is a collection of seven small unit actions by American units against either North Vietnamese or Viet Cong units from 1965 to 1967. The authors present no single theme for the seven actions; each offers its own lessons. Taken as a whole, however, they represent the diverse nature of American combat operations in Vietnam.
  • Krepinevich, Andrew F. The Army and Vietnam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. (959.7043373 K92a).
    This book is a scathing critique of the U.S. military policy during the Vietnam War. It argues that the Army was rigidly fixed on fighting an European-type war, and using massive firepower to minimize casualties. Unprepared to fight a counterinsurgency, the Army stubbornly tried to transplant these conventional, but inappropriate, methods to Vietnam. Although sometimes too negative and narrow, this book is interesting reading that pleads that we must do better against counterinsurgency.
  • Moore, Harold G., LTG (ret.) and Joseph L. Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once... And Young: Ia Drang--The Battle that Changed the War in Vietnam. New York: Random House, 1992. (959.704342 M822w).
    This powerful book gives a vivid hour-by-hour account of this fierce first American battle of the Vietnam War by two of its participants. Armed with interviews from hundreds of participants, the authors describe the battle from the viewpoint of the lieutenants, sergeants, and privates. The result is a primer of combat leadership and battlefield management under the most trying conditions. This book strips away the glamor and sterileness of war.
  • Palmer, Dave Richard. Summons of the Trumpet: U.S.-Vietnam in Perspective. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1978. (959.7043375 P173s).
    This well written book is an interesting operational history of the American involvement in Vietnam from the advisory years to the final withdrawal. Arguing that neither the strategies of attrition nor applied pressure worked, Palmer traces the evolution of American tactics and strategy throughout the war. Covering both the ground and air operations, this well balanced study is the best one volume history of the war.
  • Summers, Harry. On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1982. (959.7043373 S955o).
    In analyzing American strategy in Vietnam, Summers uses Clausewitz and the principles of war. He weaves these into an intricate, yet readable, account of the strategic, tactical, and political aspects of the wars. He also gives an insightful analysis of what went wrong, how and why the U.S. effort failed, and what might have been done differently.
  • Wirtz, James J. The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1991. (959.70438 W799t).
    In this well researched study, Wirtz explains why the Americans failed to anticipate the scope, timing, and targets of the Tet offensive of 1968. He argues that rather than lacking information, Americans' preexisting beliefs were faulty and permitted faulty analysis. He does this in context of the North Vietnamese strategic debate and deception plan.

Modern Era: Context

  • Cordesman, Anthony H. and Abraham R. Wagner. The Lessons of Modern War. 3 vols. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. (355.48 C794L).
    These three volumes are an exhaustive attempt to draw lessons from five recent wars: The Arab-Israeli War of 1973, the invasion of Lebanon in 1982, the Iran-Iraq War, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the Falkland Island War. The authors emphasize combined arms, tactics, and technology. These books are great reference works with good details and encyclopedic format.
  • Fall, Bernard. Street Without Joy. New York: Schocken Books, 1964. (959.7 F194s).
    Easily the foremost authority on the conflict in Southeast Asia, Fall gives a penetrating study of the conflict in Vietnam between the French and Viet-Minh. He describes the methods used on both sides and how the Viet-Minh's were more successful. Vividly written from both the strategic and tactical level, this book is helpful in studying guerrilla war.
  • Herzog, Chaim. The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1982. (956.04 H582a).
    This book is probably the best single volume survey of the forty year conflict between the Arabs and Israel. Chaim Herzog, a former Israeli officer, provides clear, concise summaries of the wars of 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973. He also covers the raid on Entebbe and the invasion of Lebanon. A good account of how an Israeli views his military heritage.

Modern Era

  • Adkins, Mark. Urgent Fury: The Battle for Grenada. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989. (972.9845 A236u).
    In this book, Adkins, a retired British officer serving with the Barbados Defense Force, offers a thorough and professional analysis of the invasion of Grenada. He uses the book's first half to recount the political situation on Grenada before October 1983. Then he turns to the invasion itself. With the aid of over twenty maps, he gives a detailed account of the operation, often raising unsettling questions on its planning and execution.
  • Blaufarb, Douglas S. The Counterinsurgency Era: U.S. Doctrine and Performance, 1950 to the Present. New York: The Free Press, 1977. (355.02184 B645c).
    This work is the only comprehensive study on America's counterinsurgency experience. Blaufarb examines the development, decline, and finally abandonment of American efforts from the end of World War II to the end of the Vietnam War. This coverage and Blaufarb's critique of the U.S. approach to counterinsurgency theory, doctrine, and practice make this book essential reading for those interested in low-intensity conflict.
  • Bolger, Daniel P. Americans at War, 1975-1986: An Era of Violent Peace. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1988. (973.92 B688a).
    This is an operational history of the U.S. military actions since the Vietnam War. Bolger discusses seven military actions since 1975, including the Iranian hostage rescue attempt and Operation URGENT FURY. For each action, Bolger draws on a wealth of published sources to give a straightforward description of the objectives, planning, and military operations.
  • Scales, Robert H. Jr., et. al. Certain Victory: United States Army in the Gulf War. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Staff, 1993. (956.70442 S281c).
    As the Army Chief of Staff, GEN Sullivan commissioned this book to present a clear picture of the Army's role in the Gulf War. Combining first hand accounts with operational reports, this book gives an operational history of the Army's performance during DESERT STORM. It traces the emergence of the Army from the post-Vietnam doldrums to its powerful sweep across the desert.
  • Donnelly, Thomas, Margaret Roth and Caleb Baker. Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama. New York: Lexington Books, 1991. (327.7307287 D685o).
    Based on hundreds of interviews with participants, this book gives a detailed account of the operation. Although it concentrates on the role of the Army and other services, it places the operation in its political and strategic context. Stating that JUST CAUSE accomplished its goals, the authors argue that the operation marks a change in mission for the American military. They also give a good summary of "lessons learned."

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Sources for Military Biographies

This selective bibliography highlights materials which provide information about military personalities. The genesis for this bibliography came as a result of CAS3 students needing information for officer briefings. Ask a librarian for assistance or call the Reference Department, CARL at (913) 758-3053.


  • Army Register. Washington : Adjutant General's Office, 1818 - .
    (Special Collections 353.6 U56u)
    Information about Army officers only. Over the course of its history, it has had several arrangements. The type of information it provides includes birthdate, homestate, schooling, both military and civilian, dates of rank, and awards.
  • Army List and Directory. Washington : U.S. War Dept., Jan 1904 - 1943.
    (Special Collections 353.6 U386a) Incomplete.
    This publication, which was issued at intervals during the year, lists Army officers by relative rank, by branch, National Guard, organized Reserve, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, military attaches, and general officers. Gives a mailing address for each officer at the time of publication.
  • Biographical Dictionary of World War I. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.
    (REF 940.30922 H581b)
    Not only a dictionary of individuals associated with World War I, but includes six chapters of historical background on the war. Includes a bibliography, index, and two appendices, one a chronology of events and the other a listing of occupations of individuals, prewar, wartime, and postwar.
  • Biographical Dictionary of World War II. NY : St. Martin's Press, 1972.
    (REF 940.530922 T926b)
    Brief biographical sketches included for individuals because their names occured frequently in the literature of the time.
  • Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. NY : Van Nostrand, 1868. 3 vol. with supplements through 1950.
    (Special Collections 355.0071173 C967b)
    This work's author is George W. Cullum, hence it is often known as "Cullum's." Organized by the class year and student number, the researcher must consult the index in the back in order to locate biographical information for each individual listed. Includes birth state, and from what state appointed, dates of attendance at the Military Academy, dates of rank, summary of military service and for some entries, a summary of civil career. Dates and places of death are often included. Continued by Register of Graduates and Former Cadets of the United States Military Academy.
  • Black Defenders of America, 1775-1973. Chicago : Johnson Pub. Co., 1974.
    (REF 355.1 G812b)
    Ten separate chapters cover U.S. wars in chronological order from the American Revolution and the Indian Campaigns through Vietnam. Each chapter is introduced by a five- to six-hundred-word statement on the status of blacks in the military services during the particular war. Each biographical sketch cites the authority for the information. References are given at the end of each chapter. Photos appear on nearly every page." --ARBA Guide, p. 259-260.
  • The Congressional Medal of Honor: The Names, the Deeds. Forest Ranch, CA : Sharp & Dunnigan Publications, 1984.
    (REF 355.13420922 C749)
    This publication reprints a U.S. government publication, Medal of Honor Recipients, 1863-1978 published in 1978. Citations for the Medal of Honor form the major part of the book, which are grouped into twenty-two sections by war, campaign, conflict, or era. It is arranged in reverse chronological order by beginning with Vietnam and ending with the Civil War. --ARBA Guide, p. 258-259.
  • Dictionary of American Military Biography. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1984. 3 vol.
    (REF 355.00922 D554)
    "Biographies of American military leaders from the colonial era to the present. Essays run from a paragraph to several pages in length, and a short bibliography concludes each signed entry. Appendices include a chronology of military developments, lists of American military ranks and units, an index of persons by birthplace, and two other indexes : entries by conflict and by service. An overall index of names and places concludes the final volume." — Biographical Sources, p. 31. Edited by Dr. Roger Spiller, George C. Marshall Professor, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
  • Famous Cavalry Leaders. Boston : L. C. Page & Co., 1908.
    (923.5 J72f3)
    Fifteen narratives of cavalry leaders are included here, such as Attila the Hun, Genghis Khan, and George Armstrong Custer.
  • Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge : LA : Louisiana State University Press, 1964.
    (REF 973.7410922 W281g)
    A companion volume to Generals in Gray. Not limited to generals, this work provides information about Union commanders arranged alphabetically by surname. Three appendices in the back provide brevet ranks, state of birth, and a list of campaigns and battles. Extensive bibliography and list of notes are also included.
  • Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge, LA : Louisiana State University Press, 1959.
    (REF 973.742 W)
    More accurately, biographical sketches of Confederate commanders. Portraits are usually included as is an extensive bibliography at the end.
  • Official Register of the Officers and Cadets. West Point, NY : U.S.M.A. Printing Office. 34 vol.(355.0071173 U575o)
    Beginning in 1818 and issued at regular intervals, this is not a cummulative list of graduates but a list of current cadets enrolled at the USMA for a given year. Other information about the USMA is also included. CARL holdings end in 1966.
  • Registers of Enlistments in the United States Army, 1798-1914.
    81 microfilm rolls. (D000809)
    Except for pension records, which are located in the National Archives, these microfilmed registers (microfilmed from registers also held by the National Archives) may be the only source of information on enlisted personnel serving in the Regular Army during the 19th century.
    Entries for each man may show: when, where, and by whom he was enlisted; period of enlistment; place of birth; age at time of enlistment; civilian occupation; physical description; unit or regiment to which he was assigned; and additional remarks.
    The records are arranged by date of enlistment and there under alphabetically but it is probably easier to ask a librarian for assistance. A helpful guide to this microfilm collection can be found in Military Service Records, (REF 016.35560973 M644)
  • Register of Graduates and Former Cadets of the United States Military Academy. West Point, NY: Association of Graduates, USMA, 1972 - . 30 vol.
    (355.00711 R337)
    Organized by class year, this cummulative register provides birthdate, state of birth, a brief summary of assignments, retirement date, rank, occupation and mailing address. There is also an indication, where appropriate, if an individual is a descendant or ancestor of another graduate. Continues the Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.
  • The War Lords: Military Commanders of the Twentieth Century. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976.
    (355.3310922 W253)
    Forty-three chapter-length biographies of military leaders from mainly World War I and II are included here. Coverage is international but with primary focus on American and British commanders. Excludes the Russo-Japanese and Sino-Japanese conflicts and guerilla and terrorist warfare.
  • Webster's American Military Biographies. NY: Dover, 1984.
    (355.00922 W385 1984)
    "An alphabetical guide to the careers of 1,033 Americans who served in the military. Both living and dead persons are included, and coverage is current through the Vietnam conflict. Addenda include chronological lists of military commanders and a chronology of battles, listing which men commanded the forces at each event." — Biographical Sources, p. 32.
  • Who Was Who during the American Revolution. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1976.
    (REF 973.3 W)
    Compiled by the editors of Who's Who in America, the nearly 1,500 biographical sketches are organized according to the thirteen colonies in existence at the time of the Revolutionary War. Settlements in other regions are included under the section, "Frontiersmen and Foreign Nationals."
  • Who Was Who in American History - The Military. Chicago, IL: Marquis Who's Who,1975.
    (REF 355.00922 W628 1975)
  • Who Was Who in the American Revolution. NY: Facts on File, 1993.
    (REF 973.30922 P985w)
    Includes about 1,500 entries arranged alphabetically by surname, a guide to sources used in the compilation of the work and an index.
  • Who Was Who in World War II. NY: T.Y Crowell, 1978.
    (REF 940.530922 K26w)
    Edited by John Keegan, this World War II who's who features brief sketches of military and political leaders of the time arranged by surname and illustrated with pertinent, mostly black and white, photos. Good for brief highlights and browsing.
  • Who's Who in Military History: From 1453 to the Present Day. NY: Morrow, 1976.
    (REF 355.008 K26w)
    Edited by John Keegan and Andrew Wheatcroft. "An illustrated biographical dictionary of military leaders of the modern era: from the age of firearms which began in 1453, to the time of publication. Coverage is international and portraits accompany the short sketches. A glossary of military terms and continental maps showing battle sites concludes the work." — Biographical Sources, p. 32.
  • World Military Leaders. NY: Bowker, 1974.
    (REF 355.00922 W376w)
    "Covers senior military and civilian personnel in military establishments worldwide. One section lists the biographies in alphabetical order; the second lists them by country served. Emphasis is on military-related careers." — Biographical Sources, p. 32.

The following guides were used to prepare this bibliography:

  • ARBA Guide to Biographical Dictionaries. Edited by Bohdan S. Wynar. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1986.
  • Biographical Sources : A Guide to Dictionaries and Reference Works. By Diane J.Cimbala, Jennifer Cargill, and Brian Allen. Oryx Press, 1986.

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